Literature

Proceedings of the Polyurethane Foam Association Technical Program May and October, 1998

Measuring Emissions from FPF Plants in the USA, Karroll Booth, Bayer Corporation, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

This paper discusses the validation of two Industrial Hygiene methods for measuring TDI emissions from process stacks; presents examples of TDI emissions from slabstock foam lines; and provides a summary of recent state regulatory activities related to TDI.

Traditional industrial hygiene sampling procedures had not been validated to establish their suitability for the qualification of TDI emissions from polyurethane foam manufacturing processes. Recently, two methods (OSHA Method 18 and HSE Method MDHS 25/2) were subjected to a validation protocol developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This protocol, known as EPA Method 301 (Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods of Various Waste Media), establishes procedures for systematically evaluating the precision and bias of pollutant measurement methodologies.

OSHA Method 18 and HSE MDHS 23/2 meet the requirements of EPA Method 301 with respect to bias and precision.

The European Experience on TDI Emissions Control, John Chapman, Gilbert International Limited, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

Historically, expenditures on emission control equipment and on costly process technologies have been driven largely by regulatory demands or by incidents which may have endangered people or the environment.

Scrubber systems were developed in flexible foam slabstock line stacks to meet more demanding emissions levels. The first scrubbers were aqueous and the industry evolved into use of activated carbon systems. Industry experts and regulatory authorities continue to push for better technologies.

Scrubber units capable of removing TDI from the effluent gases from FPF slabstock plant stacks are well proven. As far as anticipating future requirements, European foamers are focused on VOC issues, and the toxicological properties of t-amines are being monitored.

Controlling TDI Emissions from FPF Plants, Steve Butterworth, Calgon Carbon Corporation, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

This paper addresses TDI emissions control techniques. The traditional methods for meeting emission limits from urethane foaming facilities include water scrubbers, incineration, raising the exhaust stack height, and deep bed activated carbon systems.

Although these control options have all been shown to be effective for emissions control, discussions with various foam producers and TDI manufacturers reveal a need for a more cost effective control methodology. Activated carbon is presented as providing a good combination of flexibility and removal efficiency for TDI control.

Specific techniques are described for using activated carbon for TDI emissions control, highlighting the benefits and performance of certain systems.

TDI Antibodies, Pat Conner, BASF Corporation, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

Determination of diisocyanate hypersensitivity causes much concern and often confusion. Antibody tests and methacholine challenge tests have been used but do not provide clear-cut information.

Studies of antibodies in serum conjugates of a diisocyanate have also been inconclusive as a method to determine allergic reaction to the compound. A positive reaction found using this method may only be an indicator of past exposure.

Methacholine challenge tests determine non-specific bronchial hyperactivity. Greater pulmonary sensitivity to this pharmaceutical upon inhalation is seen in cases of diisocyanate hypersensitivity. However, many other factors impact an individual's responsiveness to this drug. Sensitivity to the methacholine varies over time. Interpretation of methacholine challenge tests is complicated and demands knowledge of the limitations of the test. Even though its use is recommended by some notable experts, in practice, it is difficult to obtain sufficiently reliable information to act upon from this test.

TDI Regulations in the USA, Jim McIntyre, McIntyre Law Firm, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

Toluene Diisocyanate ("TDI") is regulated by the federal government and by most state governments. Because of the complexity of the federal regulatory framework, and because state regulation sometimes plays more of a backup role, this paper principally focuses on federal regulation.

The paper discusses how the federal government regulates TDI under the Clean Air Act, the development of emergency response plans related to accidental releases of TDI, and the conducting of public meetings pertaining to emergency response planning and notification under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act. Several federal statutes regarding shipment and disposal of TDI are presented. TDI disposal rarely applies for flexible polyurethane foam manufacturers, as essentially all TDI is consumed in the manufacturing process. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which regulated workplace exposure limits, is discussed with emphasis on TDI regulation in North Carolina.

This paper is intended as a general summary of laws and regulations pertaining to TDI. It is not intended as legal advice and should not be used as such. Because laws and regulations are subject to change, readers should consult legal counsel before making any decisions that might be affected by TDI regulation.

Beneficial Effects of Cushion on Carpet Appearance Retention and Longevity, Bill Wald, Carpet Cushion Council, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

Most people agree that carpet cushion provides comfort and luxury. In contract applications, when cushion is installed beneath the carpet, there is concern about carpet delamination, wrinkling, restretch, and cost. The carpet industry is inclined to promote the traditional direct glue down carpet system, designing products accordingly. Specifier and end-user education is needed within the contract marketplace to correct misconceptions.

Studies were conducted to evaluate delamination and restretch potential for three groups of contract carpet cushion (fiber, rubber, and polyurethane). Thirty-two cushion samples were analyzed to determine compliance with industry specifications.

The results of various performance tests are described, including the PFA Walk On Test and the Hexapod Drum Test. Based on these tests, a solid case can be made for using any suitable commercial cushion in extending carpet life in commercial carpet applications.

United Nation's Support Program for CFC Phase-out in FPF - Case Study for Liquid Carbon Dioxide, Bert Veenendaal, RAPPA Inc., Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

When Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be ozone-depleting substances (OCDs), the Montreal Protocol was adopted in 1987. This international agreement was ratified by more than 150 countries as of 1996, and it specifies OCDs and time frames to restrict or eliminate their use. The Multilateral Fund (MLF) was subsequently developed to assist developing countries in complying with the Protocol through the financing of projects that dealt with evolving to the new standard.

CFC phase-out in the foam sector is an important part of MLF's effort. Keeping appraised on new technologies, their costs, benefits, and possible application in MLF sponsored projects is part of its task.

In this light, the Fund decided to prepare a methodology to calculate the costs of flexible foam projects - slabstock (FPF) and molded (FMF) - using liquid carbon dioxide (LCD) as a blowing agent. This paper outlines the Terms of Reference for this task, including: Review of Technology, Criteria of Eligibility under Fund Policy, Capital Costs, Operational Costs/Savings, Sample Calculations, and Recommendations.

CPSC Activities - Upholstered Furniture Flammability, Dale Ray, Consumer Products Safety Commission, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

In this presentation, CPSC upholstered furniture flammability activities are summarized. An overview of upholstered furniture fire hazards is followed by the more recent CPSC activities, such as the NASFM Petition, standards development, performance/conformance evaluation, and the commission vote.

Statistics concerning fire loss estimates for the upholstered furniture industry, including deaths, were displayed. There is a need for more intensive investigations to support a better understanding of upholstered fire flammability and its potential risks. The causes, effects, and related damages of upholstery fires are described and supported by statistics.

Methods to lessen the upholstered furniture flammability risk and toxicity issues possibly related to some flame retardant chemicals are discussed. The economics vs. performance benefits of these chemicals are compared using flammability tests. The goal is to bring about a reasonable, technologically practical, and objective Flammability Standard.

Furniture Performance Testing @ Consumers Union, Pat Slaven, Consumers Union, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

The Consumers Union has been actively testing products for more than 60 years. Large-scale performance of systems is examined, down to the nuts and bolts. The Union focuses on whether the advertised intended use of a product is appropriate, whether the product is durable and safe, as well as its performance after misuse.

This paper describes performance evaluation studies applied to reclining chairs, particularly the seating system. The Union purchased three samples of each of thirteen popular recliner models, and then evaluated the chairs for problems and damage after each testing session. The report describes the performance test methodology, provides test results and discusses the implications of the test outcomes.

Fundamentals of FPF Slabstock Catalysis, Mark L. Listemann, Air Products, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA, May 14 & 15, 1998

Formation of flexible slabstock polyurethane foam is a complicated process involving multiple simultaneous reactions, rapid volume and temperature increases, and the ultimate development of a phase separated polymer network. The kinetics of the foaming process, temperature and viscosity profiles, and morphology development have all been studied in great detail using numerous techniques. However, no technique can provide a complete description of the sequence of events necessary to produce acceptable foam. In this paper, foam model studies, infrared spectroscopy, and the mass-loss / rate-of-rise technique provide a more detailed description of the role of the industry standard catalysts in the foaming process.