Literature

Abstracts

Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

"Efficient Recovery of FPF for Recycling" , Gregory Conigliaro, Conigliaro Industries,

This presentation provides the current status on mattress recycling and discusses the reasons why land filling and rebuilding mattresses and furniture may not be the best solution to old home furnishings disposal. It also provides an update on some existing regulations and projects landfill bans that may occur in the future. Conigliaro Industries is a 70,000 sq.ft. recycling facility outside Boston, MA with custom machinery to address the special requirements necessary for efficient recycling of mattresses and box springs.

"Recycling of Scrap Foam to Improve the Profitablity of Slabstock Production", Martin Dawson, Mobius Technologies, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

Scrap rates are approximately 20% for most slab foam manufacturers. Some of the scrap is used as rebonded carpet cushioning, but this market is in decline. At the same time, the supply of scrap is increasing, and the value of scrap is thus projected to decline precipitously. Mobius Technologies has commercialized a process for turning excess scrap into an ultrafine powder, which can be used to replace virgin chemicals in the manufacture of new foam. The paper examines the factors causing the over-supply of scrap foam, including ELV, the landfill directive and US flooring trends and the economics of adopting the Mobius process for a typical slab foam manufacturer.

"Review of API Interlaboratory Study for Development of a Furniture Fire Test", Kurt Reimann, Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

This is a continuation of the development of a small-scale composite furniture flammability test that was presented at the October 2002 PFA Technical Program. The paper presents the results of interlaboratory or "round robin" work to develop a small-scale composite test method. The goal of this work is to help reduce the incidence of fire deaths and injuries associated with fires involving upholstered furniture. The results of the interlaboratory study are not complete and more research and data analysis will be required. Further evaluation of the test with a wider range of materials and additional large-scale testing will be reported as part of a later PFA Technical. Before final regulations are put into place, it is strongly urged that more full-scale fire testing be done.

"MegaFoam: New Processing Technology for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Niche Markets", Ingo Wilkes, Hennecke Machinery division of Bayer Polymers, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

Discontinuous productions of flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) are used for medium production outputs. The MegaFoam allows for a flexible production of special foam grades in low quantities. Customers have the ability to develop and produce a multitude of foam densities and foam grades including conventional, HR, HS, viscoelastic and sponge-structure foams, while using standard raw materials. The basic machine is equipped with a line for Polyol, Isocyanate, activator, silicon and tin. Rectangular and round foam blocks can be produced. The maximum shot weight is 330 pounds/block. The equipment uses the vacuum and pressure technology and produces foams qualities in the density range between 0.75 and 5 lbs./cubic feet.

The MegaFoam system exceeds the hardness and softness ranges of foam produced with standard raw materials. It is highly flexible equipment, which does not need any blowing agent. The MegaFoam processing equipment system is primarily for developing market niches products with lower investment cost..

"Development of a New Specialty Grade Polyurethane CoFoam", Tim Thomson, Hydrophilix Corporation, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

So-called Hydrophilic Polyurethane (HPUR) has existed since the middle 70's as a separate entity from conventional polyurethane business. While conventional polyurethane foams are described by their physical properties of tensile and compressive strength, density, pore size, etc., HPURs are described in terms of their organic and physical chemistries. They are, in short, more of a specialty chemical compared to the relatively commodity status of conventional PUR products. In this paper we review the differences in chemistry and applications with special emphasis on the deficiencies that have limited HPUR to small yet interesting product areas.

To address these deficiencies, and thereby open up new, high value markets, Hydrophilix has developed a composite that combines the physical structure of a reticulated PUR with the specialty nature of HPUR.

New Low Volatility Amine Catalysts for Use in Flexible Slabstock Applications. Kaye Robinson, Crompton / OSi Specialties Urethane Additives, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

Tertiary amine catalysts have historically been used in the preparation of flexible polyurethane foam (FPF). However, the most active amine catalysts are plagued by relatively high volatility. Release of these amines during FPF production and in post-production consumer goods is becoming a topic of concern in the FPF industry, especially in automotive and bedding applications. In fact, some applications in Europe require that amines be non-volatile.

To address industry concerns, the OSi Specialties Urethane Additives group of Crompton Corporation designed a new family of amine catalysts. These catalysts are not released from fabricated FPF parts, yet can be used to produce good quality urethane foam with acceptable economics. This new family of catalysts achieves reduced volatility primarily through high molecular weight / low vapor pressure.

This paper describes OSi Specialties first low volatility catalyst developed for use in flexible slabstock foam applications. Performance characteristics are defined and compared to a standard amine. Reactivity is characterized by customary means such as cream time and rise time, as well as by comparison of exotherm curves during bench foaming. Specific use levels and formulation suggestions, along with typical physical properties are discussed.

"EUROPUR Environmental Activities", Hubert Creyf, EUROPUR, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

Flexible polyurethane foam operations and issues are becoming global. This presentation reviews changes in the European Union (EU) legal environment with particular emphasis on the new EU chemicals policy, the status of certain flame retardants and related fire legislation, a EUROPUR-sponsored assessment of mattresses, and an introduction to the EU Safety Health and Environment (SHE) standards, as well as a European perspective on the handling of post-consumer waste.

"Acoustical and Vacuumability Performance of FPF Commercial Carpet Cushion", Mike Norton, Alliance for Flexible Polyurethane Foam, Proceedings of the Technical Program of the Polyurethane Foam Association Meeting, Arlington, VA , May 8, 2003

This joint research program co-sponsored by the Carpet Cushion Council and the Alliance for Flexible Polyurethane Foam, identifies some of the potential acoustic and maintenance benefits of commercial bonded polyurethane carpet cushion.

Noise management has been recognized for its importance in workspace productivity, creating significant interest in the acoustic properties of materials for commercial interiors. This presentation reports the results of an independent laboratory evaluation of various popular commercial carpet cushions.

Ease of maintenance is also an important parameter in commercial flooring. In a separate independent study, the efficiency of dirt removal by vacuum cleaning using popular commercial carpets combined with a number of different carpet cushions was measured using a standardized test method.

The presentation concludes that carpet installed over commercial polyurethane bonded carpet cushion provides improved sound absorption compared to the same carpet installed without cushion. Carpet installed over commercial polyurethane bonded carpet cushion can provide an improvement in dirt removal by vacuuming compared to the same carpet installed without cushion.