Literature

Abstracts

May 4, 2006 PFA Technical Program, Washington Court Hotel, Washington, DC

 "New Innovations in Combustion Barrier Technology" Harrison Murphy, Ventex Fabrics

Abstract: For foam mattresses the challenge has been to design combustion barrier systems that optimize the"feel" benefits of the latest innovative foams. Many mattress manufacturers will discover that the nonwoven batting style barriers may cause all products to "feel the same", regardless of content. The "sameness in feel" can be eliminated by switching to an engineered textile barrier system that can accent the properties of contouring foams and provide an optimum sleeping surface for the consumer. This presentation will include test data, photos, samples, and discuss issues related to this innovation and why it benefits foam producers strategic objectives.

 "Improved Phosphorus-based Combustion Modification" Heiko Tebbe, Lanxess Corporation

Abstract: The paper will introduce new phosphorus-based flame retardants for polyurethane foams addressing market demands for low scorch and low emissions. The paper will present the properties of the products in formulations for furniture as well as in automotive formulations along with its health and environmental characteristics. Test results will demonstrate the flame retardant efficiency, low scorch characteristics and low fogging levels.

 "Interlaboratory Study on Smoldering Ignition" Stephen Falloon, Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry / Chemtura Corporation

Abstract: An interlaboratory study (ILS) was conducted on three pairs of materials (foam and fabric) in eleven laboratories in accordance with the May 2005 Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) protocol for cigarette smoldering ignition of upholstered furniture mockups. The foams of 1.35 and 1.80 pcf density and compliant with the draft revision for Calif. TB117 (TB117+). The fabrics were the cotton velvet product specified in the CPSC protocol. Evaluation of the statistical results revealed a large variation in results for both of the foams. Thus, it is possible that results from a variety of laboratories could have a significant range in weight loss. The practical result of this variability is that “failures” (i.e., greater than 10 percent mass loss in a single test run) were recorded in this ILS and more would be anticipated, even though the vast majority of these tests passed the proposed CPSC criteria. This paper will identify some of the physical variables associated with the protocol and offer a number of observations that may affect test outcomes.

 "An Industry Economic Review of the CPSC Staff Draft Proposal for a Flammability Standard for Upholstered Furniture" Russell Batson, American Home Furnishings Alliance

Abstract: At the request of the American Home Furnishings Alliance (AHFA), the National Home Furnishings Association (NHFA), and the Upholstered Furniture Action Council (UFAC), CRA International (CRA) reviewed the Consumer Product Safety Commission staff’s (CPSC) draft upholstered furniture flammability standard. Based on its review, CRA concluded that the CPSC staff’s preliminary regulatory analysis fails to support the draft standard. This presentation will discuss compliance with the requirements detailed in the CPSC Staff Draft Proposal might affect future FPF economics in upholstered furniture.

 "Negotiating RACT for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Manufacturing Facilities" Hubie Gallagher, RTP Environmental Associates, Incorporated

Abstract: Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) requirements are applicable to flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) manufacturing facilities located throughout the U.S. in ozone non-attainment areas. These areas are designated by U.S. EPA and are monitored for compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). When Ambient Air Quality Standards change, they tend to become more stringent and the Nonattainment areas have expanded. As the regional air regulations become more stringent, they increase the potential for the requirement for FPF manufacturers to control pourline emissions. These increased control requirements can apply to existing sources even if they currently have valid air permits. This paper discusses the options available to FPF production facilities that become subject to state and federal RACT Requirements.

 "TDI Air Sampling Methods" Dana Pelc, Weston Solutions

Abstract: In 1996 the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted an investigation of Trinity American Corporation (Trinity) located in Glenola, North Carolina. Under pressure from the ATSDR, the North Carolina Department of Health and local residences, ATSDR continued its investigation of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) emissions and in 2004; ATSDR released a protocol for continued investigations of TDI in the atmosphere near other FPF manufacturing sites in North Carolina (ATSDR, 2004). The protocol was designed to: 1) Identify four communities with potential for exposure to diisocyanate emissions; 2) Characterize exposed populations and select comparison populations; 3) Verify the presence or absence of diisocyanate releases in the ambient air of target and comparison communities; 4) Further refine exposure characterization using air sampling/air modeling in both exposed and comparison communities; 5) Recruit adult participants, aged 18 years and older, who reside in the study areas; 6) Assess potential for occupational exposure to diisocyanates or exposure to other sources of diisocyanates among participants; 7) Assess the presence of diisocyanate antibodies in blood samples from participants in both target and comparison communities; 8) Assess respiratory health among participants using screening questions. The protocol outlined monitoring methods for sampling for TDI that would be used in the study. In 2005 the protocol was revised to provide an updated approach to TDI monitoring for the proposed study (ATSDR, 2005). This paper will discuss the various TDI monitoring methods and their advantages and disadvantages with regard to the proposed ATSDR studies.

  "Overview on Bio-based Polyols for FPF Production" Phil Sarnacke, United Soybean Board

Abstract: This presentation will review the status of the development work being done by various polyol producers to produce soy based polyols for use in flexible Polyurethane foam formulations. The efforts sponsored in part by the United Soybean Board are an attempt to expand the product offerings to all segments of the polyurethane industry. A discussion of economic potential and technical progress to date along with a preview of soy polyol products to come for the slabstock industry will be covered in the presentation.