Literature

Abstracts

May 24, 2007, PFA Technical Program, Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, MD


 “Development of Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Solutions for Flexible Polyurethane Foam” Jeff Stowell, Supresta

Flame-retardant additives are often used to reduce the risk and severity of polyurethane foam combustion. A wide variety of flame retardants are known and commercially available for this purpose. The phase out of the widely used flame retardant pentabrominated diphenyl ether in 2004 due to its persistent and bioaccumulative properties has prompted the flame retardant industry’s move towards the use of more sustainable halogen-free flame retardant alternatives. In recent years Supresta has introduced two sustainable halogen-free flame retardant solutions Fyrol® HF-4 and Fyrol® PNX for flexible polyurethane foam. Building on this knowledge, we continue to develop sustainable next generation products for use in flexible polyurethane foam. In this paper, we will discuss scorch, flammability and physical property performances of our halogen-free product solutions.

 “Advances in Natural Oil Based Polyols Chemistry and Supply Options for the FPF Industry” Ricardo De Genova, Cargill Incorporated

Interest in polyols derived from natural oils has been increasing in recent years for a variety of polyurethane applications. Key drivers are: production from renewable resources, bringing a new product supply option, supply stability, and the opportunity for product differentiation. Until now, the successful use of natural oil based polyols in flexible slabstock applications has been limited due to issues with quality consistency, odor, impact on physical properties and processing limitations. Most recently Cargill Incorporated introduced BiOH(TM) polyols product line for the production of flexible foams. BiOH polyols are performance products produced with a chemistry that is completely detached from propylene or ethylene oxide that have resolved the odor and quality consistency issues previously encountered with other natural oil based polyols. This paper describes the large-scale evaluation results of the BiOH polyols first generation in different foam grades.

 “New Silicone Surfactant Designed for Viscoelastic Foam” Ladislau Heisler, Momentive Performance Materials

The volume of visco-elastic foam used in bedding continues to increase. Active programs to improve the processing latitude to help reduce foam manufacturing loses have been a continuing effort for additive suppliers. This paper describes a new silicone surfactant offering that provides cell opening and stabilization for both TDI and MDI viscoelastic foam, and can be used alone or in conjunction with a stabilizing surfactant depending on level of stability required. The new silicone surfactant provides enhanced cell-opening characteristics; reduced foam shrinkage and scrap rate; improved processing latitude, non-hydrolyzable type structure; superior product consistency, emission reduction - lower VOC and odor, and lower viscosity, providing improved handling of the surfactant stream.

 “Preliminary Analysis of FPF Samples for CertiPUR-US” William Stegeman, Stork Twin City Testing

This paper provides a summary of laboratory analyses for nine polyurethane foam samples including six categories of analysis:
1. Extractable heavy metals
2. Tributyltin (TBT)
3. Sum of six specified phthalate plasticizers
4. Pentabromodiphenylethers (PBDE’s) - fire retardant
5. 2,4 Toluenediamine (TDA) and 4,4’ Diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA)
6. Specified Volatile Organic Compounds and total Volatile Organic Compounds

 “Development of Environmentally Friendly Bromine Based Flame Retardants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam” Stephen Falloon, Chemtura

Flexible polyurethane foam is highly flammable. Flame retardants are used to reduce this hazard and to enable foam to comply with fire safety standards. Recently, there have been increased concerns about the effect of flame retardants upon the environment. This paper discusses recent development of environmentally friendly bromine based flame retardants for flexible polyurethane foam.

 “Advances in Adhesive Technology for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Fabrication” Gary Groat, Worthen Industries, UPACO Adhesives. Div.

This paper provides an overview of adhesives used in the foam fabrication industry including solvent adhesives that can be flammable or non-flammable; water-based adhesives produced from either natural rubber latex, or synthetic rubber emulsions often used with viscoelastic foam products; hot melt adhesives primarily used with low tension laminations, and PSA adhesives for use in tape applications, typically applied to release paper and transfer coated onto foam substrates. Adhesive technology has improved through improved formulations and through the development of automation to improve production efficiency. The development of adhesives using acetone as the only solvent in a formulation has provided end users with a fast drying adhesive that requires no VOC reporting. Hot melt formulations are now capable of “structural” bonds to foam; with very long open time and firm, but flexible final bonds. New developments in automated spray bridges help expand opportunities for use of hot melt adhesives. Water-based one-part synthetic rubber adhesives now provide fast set and foam tear, with less dimpling of final bonds and are particularly suited for use with memory foams. Formulations for roll coater applications allow one-way application, and improvements have been made in mechanical stability and in faster set speeds, which creates more efficiency. Additionally, cleaning solutions for roll coaters have dramatically reduced the time and effort that has been expended in recent years to clean equipment after production. New developments include heat-reactive film adhesive products, films produced and supplied in web form. Advances in automated adhesive application are also discussed.