Literature

Abstracts

May 22, 2008, PFA Technical Program, Sheraton Inner Harbor, Baltimore, MD


 “Olmo Paper Technology For Slabstock FPF Production” Ray Keen, Mondi Group

This presentation serves as an introduction to Mondi Group products and specifically OLMO Paper® Technology for production of flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) in the United States. OLMO Paper® is a process liner developed exclusively for Continuous Slabstock production of Ether/Ester/HR flexible polyurethane foam. OLMO Paper® is a unique product that combines kraft paper and a very thin peelable polyethylene film (LDPE or HDPE) via controlled adhesion. It is a new material option solving various production problems associated with conventional processing paper or standard polyethylene films. OLMO Paper® is a well functioning liner designed to run on all machine types such as Beamech, Cannon Viking, Hennecke and Laader Berg.

OLMO Paper® offers 5 major benefits including reduction in material loss, greater protection from isocyanates prior to cure, cleaner and more efficient work environment, improved foam properties, and recyclable / reusable Kraft paper content.

This presentation provides background on the Mondi Group and details regarding the benefits of using OLMO Paper®.

 “A Discussion Around Renewable Content In Flexible Foams and Other Commonly Asked Questions About BiOH™ Polyols” Ricardo De Genova and Timothy W. Abraham, Cargill Incorporated

Interest in polyols due to their renewable content is increasing for a variety of polyurethane applications. Cargill Incorporated introduced its BiOH™ polyols product line for the production of flexible foams, which leverages the company’s integrated global supply chain and deep knowledge of processing oilseeds and vegetable oils. BiOH polyols are performance products derived from a chemistry that is detached from propylene or ethylene oxide and do not the have odor and quality consistency issues encountered with other natural oil-based polyols. BiOH polyols constitute a new product supply option, with increased supply stability and the opportunity for differentiation with performance essentials compared to petroleum-based products at current levels of incorporation. Because BiOH polyols are a new product line based on innovative chemistry there is a need for clarity regarding renewable content, their impact on the environment, their applicability in different foam grades and appropriate nomenclature for the final foam. This paper discusses the successful utilization of BiOH polyols in different foam grades, the market drivers for renewable content, the concept of green foam as well as a methodology to measure renewable content and the impact that these products have on the environment and food supply.

 “Polyurethane Foam Manufacturing and Ambient Toluene Diisocyanate” Gary T. Yoder, O’Brien & Gere

In response to community complaints of odors and alleged health affects related to Trinity American Corporation’s (Trinity) polyurethane foam manufacturing operation in Genola, NC, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) intervened and issued a public health advisory citing 2, 4- and 2, 6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) emissions as the compound affecting residents. This intervention ultimately led to the closure of the Trinity facility in September 1997. Following in 2003, polyurethane foam manufacturers became aware that the ATSDR was preparing to continue their investigation of the health affects of TDI emissions on residents near other North Carolina foaming operations. In light of published errors in the original ATSDR Trinity study, these affected foam facilities acted to collect independent data through parallel ambient air TDI sampling. This presentation will summarize parallel ambient sampling of TDI emissions from four North Carolina polyurethane manufacturers over a 12-week period in 2007. The ATSDR sampling protocol will be compared to actual field monitoring set up and procedures as well as the results from the sampling efforts.

 “Replacing Tributyltin: New Chemistries, New Solutions” Thomas E. Robitaille, Arch Chemicals | Arch Biocides

Tributyltin compounds (TBT) are commonly used as antimicrobials to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in flexible foams. As global regulatory restrictions on TBT tighten, antimicrobial alternatives are being sought by leading foam and bedding product manufacturers. Alternatives to TBT chemistry, n-butyl-1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BBIT) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT), are introduced and characterized. This work focuses on the impact of these alternative antimicrobials on polyurethane foam reaction parameters, physical properties of finished foams and antifungal/antibacterial efficacy compared to a TBT-based antimicrobial.

 “Introducing Renewable Resource Derived Polyols for Conventional Slabstock Foam Production” Susan McVey, Micah Moore and Stanley Hager, Bayer MaterialScience LLC

Bayer MaterialScience has developed two new bio-based polyols, MULTRANOL® Polyols R-3524 and R-3525, containing ~20% renewable feedstocks. These polyols can be substituted at up to 100% for standard commercial polyols used in the production of conventional slabstock foam. The polyols were designed to provide near drop-in processing performance with virtually no loss in foam physical properties versus polyols based largely on petroleum based raw materials.

The renewable content of these new polyols is derived from glycerin, soybean oil and/or castor oil. Using the proprietary Impact catalyst technology, the oils are converted to ~ 3000 MW polyether polyols. This unique polyol process technology reduces monol formation and minimizes deleterious side reactions that occur when conventional strongly basic catalysts are used. Through careful optimization of the polyol composition and process conditions, polyols are produced that are close to the commercial polyols used widely in the industry.

These new polyols have been carefully evaluated in the production of diverse grades of polyurethane slabstock foam both in the lab and on a continuous pilot scale slabstock Minimax machine with Novaflex capability. This presentation will review the foam processing and physical property findings through these early stages of product development.

 “Environmentally Sustainable Flame Retardant Choices for Flexible Foam” Susan D. Landry, Albemarle Corporation

The use of flame retardants in polyurethane foam has resulted in a substantial reduction in fire deaths. In the end-use application, flame retardants delay the spread of fire or delay the time of flashover in order to enable people more time to escape the effects of the fire.
Emerging regulations in Europe and North America are focusing on the need for characterizing all chemical substances currently used, in terms of their environmental and human health impacts. These current programs will influence regulations to be developed for other parts of the world.

Even though there is no scientific basis to support a negative perception surrounding halogenated flame retardants, the pressure to be Halogen-Free has become a marketing tool. The selection of flame retardants is dwindling as manufactures strive to identify what may be perceived as a Green product that also has the best possible performance properties.

Albemarle Corporation is responding to the challenge to insure that flame retardants are sustainable. A program has been undertaken to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant that offers very good environmental and human health properties, efficiency, processability, and minimal scorch. Details of the development and properties of Antiblaze 117HF, a non-halogenated flame retardant for flexible polyurethane foam will be presented along with the current regulatory status of flame retardants used in polyurethane foam. This includes updates on the status of the EU Risk Assessments, North American activity, and EU REACH for flame retardants used in polyurethane foam.

 “Introduction Of A New Fixed Isocynates Detector For The Measurement Of Airborne Isocynates Concentration” Frank Gambino, DOD Technologies, Inc

While fixed detection systems of airborne Isocyanates have been available for 30+ years, the current available systems were designed over 20 years ago. Although functional, these products use outdated electronics and require extensive maintenance. Users typically complained of expensive repairs, high cost of the tape consumable and limited if any data collecting capability. DOD Technologies, Inc has introduced a new isocyanates monitor designed to eliminate many of the issues that are common in existing instruments, the DOD Technologies ChemLogic 1 (CL1) incorporates a new optics system which eliminates false alarms and dramatically reduces maintenance. The CL1 has gone through vigorous testing in both factory environments and in outdoor chemical plant environments in Southern Louisiana. In addition to the advanced diagnostics and extended tape life, the CL1 has been designed using reliable PLC technology. To meet the ever increasing requirements of collecting and storing data, the CL1 incorporates data logging of all concentrations. The CL1 is designed to meet a possible TDI TLV of 1ppb.